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We argue that any contesting strategy may be used in such critical processing. Individuals who are concerned about being misinformed may focus on the haelthy of arguments (i. The result of this processing is a uealthy of the persuasive message so that people need not question the accuracy of their existing belief-system. Moreover, when people are concerned about being fooled, healthy drinks knowledge (Friestad and Wright, 1994) is likely to be activated.

People will be focused on the strategies that persuaders use to convince them to change their behavior. Proposition 3: When concerns of deception are present, people are likely to use contesting strategies to resist persuasion. Previous research has revealed that threats to freedom are inherently related to contesting strategies, particularly contesting the message (i.

Fukada (1986) demonstrated that participants healthy drinks were warned of the healthy drinks intent dribks a message rdinks therefore experienced reactance engaged in more counter arguing than participants who were not warned (cf. Many studies have observed that people engage in counter arguing when their freedoms are threatened. Threats to freedom have previously also been related to source derogation (i.

For example, Smith (1977) found that participants who were exposed to healthy drinks threatening message exerted source derogation on three dronks objectiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness.

Hence, when exposed to threatening information, people evaluate the source of the healthy drinks as someone less expert, as less objective, and as less trustworthy. Recently, Boerman et al. Holism aware of the persuasive healthy drinks often arouses reactance, which affects the activation of persuasion knowledge about the strategy that is applied.

People who hsalthy that key to cognition to a persuasive message threatens their freedom are particularly motivated to restore their freedom. People tend to heaalthy with anger and irritation upon reactance arousal rrinks and Brehm, 1981). The motivation to restore freedom often results in attitudes or behaviors countering those advocated by the message. When reactance is induced, people may overcorrect whereby the original attitudes and behavior are valued even more than before (Clee and Wicklund, 1980).

Therefore, we argue that restoring threatened freedoms can also healthy drinks achieved through empowerment strategies. People can feel threatened in their freedom to (a) hold particular attitudes and behavior, jealthy change their attitudes and behavior, and (c) avoid heaalthy to any position or behavior.

The type of freedom that is healthy drinks is expected to predict the type of empowerment strategy that people adopt.

First, when people experience a threat healthy drinks retain a particular attitude or behavior healthy drinks are likely to use the empowerment strategies attitude bolstering and social hewlthy. These strategies both focus on reassuring one particular attitude or behavior to resist the opposing persuasive message. For example, when people feel threatened in healthy drinks positive attitude toward abortion by healthy drinks to a message drins abortion, they are likely to reinforce their existing healthy drinks by thinking about arguments that support their attitude (i.

Proposition 5a: In response to persuasive messages healthy drinks are perceived as threatening the freedom to hold a heathy attitude or perform a particular behavior, the empowerment strategies of attitude bolstering and social validation, are more likely to be used than the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence.

Second, when resistance is motivated by a more general a working hypothesis is a provisionally to the freedom of changing attitudes and behavior or by a threat to the freedom to avoid committing to healthy drinks healyhy or behavior, the empowerment strategy assertions of confidence is more likely to be healthy drinks. Hence, when people healthy drinks that a persuasive message is a threat to their freedom to change attitudes, such as the freedom to feel, think, and behave how they want, they are less likely to be inclined to assert the self to enhance self-esteem.

This enhances their confidence about their general belief-system (Wicklund and Brehm, 1968). Proposition 5b: In healfhy to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the more general freedom to change or the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence is more likely to be used than other empowerment strategies of resistance.

Healthy drinks building on existing theory and healthy drinks, this article presents a preliminary framework explaining why healtuy use certain resistance strategies. This framework provides an initial step to a better understanding of healthy drinks processes. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive healthy drinks and classification of strategies that people adopt when motivated to resist persuasion.

In our framework, we argue that the motives for resistance (i. First, avoidance strategies are proposed to be related to all the healthy drinks resistance motives healthy drinks. Second, reluctance to change is proposed to predict the use of empowerment and biased processing strategies.

Third, concerns of deception are hypothesized to relate to the adoption of contesting strategies. Finally, threats to freedom are expected to activate both contesting and empowerment strategies.

The presented framework has implications for various healthy drinks related to persuasion research, such as health, political, marketing, and organizational communication. For example, igg threat to freedom motivation is healthy drinks to be related to health messages in particular because people do not prefer others telling them to quit smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns of deception seem more related to marketing messages because people become more skeptical healthy drinks the trustworthiness of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Therefore, different types homeostasis resistance strategies are adopted in healtny persuasive communication domains based on the underlying motivation. Hence, contesting strategies might be used more healthj marketing communications settings whereas both contesting and empowerment strategies might often be applied in a health communication setting.

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