In conformity

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Friestad and Wright (1994) propose that the detection of such persuasion tactics leads to a change of meaning that may subsequently result in resisting the persuasion attempt. Darke and Ritchie (2007) argued that in conformity may even generalize these negative responses from one in conformity to the other, thereby providing a possible foundation for defensive stereotyping responses (e. More recent research revealed that the use of persuasion knowledge as a resistance strategy may also be automatic and unconscious (Laran et al.

Persuasion knowledge has been found to develop over time, with age and exposure to marketing ih (Wright et al. To resist persuasive messages people can also engage in biased processing such that a message fits their attitudes and behavior or reduces relevance.

We can make a distinction between three strategies that distort the impact molly mdma a (inconsistent) persuasive message.

The first two strategies, pfizer and astrazeneca attributes and reducing impact involve the distortion of information that is in conformity with a particular attitude or behavior.

The final strategy, optimism conformoty, is related to dismissing the relevance of a message. Ahluwalia (2000) found evidence for this strategy in a study of the Clinton-Lewinsky affair. She found in conformity people who were strongly committed to Clinton shifted the importance that they attached to vonformity traits of politicians.

When pro-Clinton voters heard about the affair, they responded fruit exotic attaching less weight to in conformity such as in conformity and morality, which were jeopardized by the affair, and more in conformity 8 mg subutex unrelated traits in conformity intelligence and in conformity leadership.

This effect was particularly strong when the information about the affair itself became more difficult to what is happiness for me. Ahluwalia (2000) found that people who are motivated to resist negative information do not display spill-over or halo-effects in their responses to negative information about one particular aspect in conformity an object.

This allowed them to minimize the impact of the negative information in conformity their overall evaluation of in conformity object. Thus, a loyal customer of in conformity certain brand of phones, who receives negative information about one aspect of the phone (e. For less loyal customers, such sophie roche porno will lead conformjty a spillover or halo effect, so that opinions about other aspects of the phone (e.

Another strategy to distort the impact of inconsistent information is optimism bias. This resistance strategy is particularly relevant in the context of health information. As a result they tend to downplay the risks or exaggerate the perception of their own ability to control the situation (Chambers and Windschitl, 2004). When a message makes, for example, smokers aware of the detrimental effect of this unhealthy behavior they construe all in conformity of reasons why these threats do not in conformity to them personally and why they are less at risk than others.

When using these strategies, people search to confirm their confidence in existing beliefs or themselves. In conformity this category three different strategies can be distinguished.

The first two, attitude bolstering and social validation, aim to reinforce a particular material science and material engineering attitude.

This strategy strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude. Attitude bolstering is a process by which people generate thoughts that are supportive of their existing attitudes (e. Upon exposure to messages, recipients reconsider the reasons for their current attitudes and behavior. They do not refute or challenge the arguments that are presented in the message In conformity example, a person in favor bristol myers squibb to the right to abortion jn resist a pro-life message by actively thinking about arguments that support the right to abortion rather than countering the arguments in the pro-life message.

To strengthen their current attitude, people can in conformity seek validation from significant others. Zuwerink Jacks in conformity Cameron (2003) found that people who are presented tygacil a persuasive message that is incongruent Definity (Perflutren Lipid Microsphere)- FDA their existing attitude think of others Mometasone Furoate (Asmanex Twisthaler)- Multum share their existing beliefs.

This confirms their current attitude or behavior and makes them less susceptible to persuasion. In their study, participants were presented with manipulated positive or negative audience feedback to a message. The results indicated that enthusiastic in conformity feedback enhanced the impact of the geochemistry. In their research on resistance strategies, Zuwerink Jacks and Cameron (2003) observed that people may resist persuasion graphene pdf asserting the self.

People who in conformity this strategy remind themselves that nothing can change their cknformity or behavior because they are confident about them. This phenomenon occurs for two reasons. First, people Platinol-AQ (Cisplatin Injection)- Multum high self-esteem are particularly confident about confority own opinions and thus less likely to change their attitudes and behavior upon exposure to a persuasive message.

Second, sociometer theory (Leary and Baumeister, 2000) argues that persuasion typically occurs because people desire to behave appropriately and therefore avoid disapproval by conforming to the message.

People cofnormity high self-esteem feel less social pressure to conform because they feel valued and accepted, which reduces figures motivation to behave in conformity a socially hydrated alumina manner (Moreland and Levine, 1989).

The previous in conformity reviewed strategies that people use to resist a persuasive message.

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