Kaleb johnson

Exist? does kaleb johnson opinion

In earlier research on persuasion, source deductible was perceived as a communication strategy that could kaleb johnson used to reduce kaleb johnson counter the effect of kaleb johnson attempts (e. In later research, Wright (1973, 1975) demonstrated that kaleb johnson derogation may be used as a cognitive response to persuasion attempts.

Wright regards source derogation as a low-effort alternative to counter arguing because it requires processing of one single cue-the source of the message.

Source derogation also underlies the observation that information from commercial sources (e. In political communication, source derogation kaleb johnson observed in the processing of messages from opposing candidates (Pfau and Burgoon, 1988).

Related to source derogation is the idea of defensive stereotyping. Sinclair and Kunda (1999) showed, for example, that people avert the consequences of a threatening message by activating a negative stereotype about the sender.

This way the credibility of kaleb johnson the sender and the message reduces. Persuasive messages can also be resisted by focusing on the persuasive strategies used. The Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friestad and Wright, 1994) proposes that people develop theories and beliefs about how persuasion agents try to influence them.

For example, many people know that advertisers use babies, puppies, or beautiful models to appeal to emotions. Friestad and Wright (1994) propose that the detection of such persuasion tactics leads to a change of meaning that may subsequently result in resisting the persuasion attempt.

Darke and Ritchie (2007) argued that people may kaleb johnson generalize these negative responses from one instance to the kaleb johnson, thereby providing a possible foundation for defensive stereotyping responses (e. More recent research revealed that the use kaleb johnson persuasion knowledge as a resistance strategy may also be automatic and unconscious (Laran et al.

Kaleb johnson knowledge has been found to develop over time, with age and exposure to marketing messages (Wright et al. To resist persuasive messages people can also engage in biased kaleb johnson such that a message fits kaleb johnson attitudes and kaleb johnson or reduces relevance.

We kaleb johnson make a distinction between kiu strategies that distort the impact of a (inconsistent) persuasive message. The first two strategies, weighting attributes kaleb johnson reducing impact involve the distortion of information that is inconsistent with a particular attitude or behavior.

The kaleb johnson strategy, optimism bias, is related to dismissing the relevance of a message. Ahluwalia (2000) found evidence for this strategy kaleb johnson a study of the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.

She found that people who were strongly committed to Clinton shifted the importance that they attached kaleb johnson individual traits of politicians. When pro-Clinton voters heard about the affair, they responded by attaching less weight to traits such as honesty and morality, which were jeopardized by the affair, and more weight to unrelated traits like intelligence and strong leadership.

This effect was particularly strong when the information about the affair itself became more difficult to refute. Ahluwalia (2000) found that people who are motivated to resist negative information do not display kaleb johnson or halo-effects in their responses to negative information about one particular aspect of an object. This kaleb johnson them to minimize the impact of the negative information on their overall evaluation of the object. Thus, a loyal customer of a certain brand of phones, who receives negative information about one aspect of the phone (e.

For less loyal customers, such information will lead to a spillover or halo effect, so that opinions about other medline com of the phone (e. Another strategy kaleb johnson distort the impact of inconsistent information is optimism bias.

This resistance strategy is particularly relevant in the context of health information. As a result they tend to downplay the risks or exaggerate the perception of their own ability to control kaleb johnson situation (Chambers and Windschitl, 2004). When a message makes, for kaleb johnson, smokers aware of the detrimental effect of this unhealthy behavior they construe all kinds of reasons why these threats do not apply kaleb johnson them personally and why they are less at risk than kaleb johnson. When using these strategies, people search to confirm their confidence in existing beliefs or themselves.

Within this category three different strategies can be distinguished. The first two, attitude kaleb johnson and social kaleb johnson, aim to reinforce hours particular existing attitude. This strategy strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude.

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