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A generalised linear model was fitted for each experiment based on a binomial athlete feet with a logic link (i.

Factors included temperature, humidity and time of day. Only factors which were shown to have a significant effect were used in the final model. The binary responses for cone assays included 3 min, 1hr knockdown (KD) and 24hr mortality as well as biting and landing where appropriate.

A generalized linear model was fitted for each experiment. Models were fitted using IBM SPSS Version 20 (IBM Corp. This study was approved by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Ethics committee (reference number 6074). No difference in knockdown after 3 minutes was shown between factory-dipped clothing (FDC), factory dipped school uniforms (FDSU) and microencapsulated clothing (MC) (Table 1).

After 1 hour exposure, the FDC and FDSU produced a knockdown of 96. MC produced a lower 1 hour knockdown, 50. There was no difference between FDC and FDSU across any of the time points. Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum protection for MC was significantly lower at 65. MC gave a bite protection of 79. No significant difference Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum found between HDC and FDC for both landing and biting protection (HDC bite protection: 91.

From 10 to 20 washes, KD decreased from 81. Mortality also decreased as wash number increased, with 77. After 30 washes 7. Knockdown and mortality decreased as the number of washes increased, with 90.

After 30 washes KD and mortality were 57. No significant differences were observed when washed clothing was compared Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum one wash. The KDW50 was 33. The HPLC analysis performed on factory dipped (FDC) clothing demonstrated that the concentration of permethrin on treated clothing decreased with washing.

For the WHO washing technique, permethrin concentration decreased from 0. For unwashed material, permethrin concentration decreased significantly across all wash points after one and Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum months simulated exposure.

Permethrin concentration decreased from 0. After 3 months of simulated ironing and ten washes, permethrin concentration was measured at 0. Clothing was exposed to Ironing for 0 seconds, 30 seconds, Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum minute, 4 minutes and 12 minutes to simulate 0, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months exposure.

Unwashed material had a significant decrease of 0. Clothing was exposed to UV-light for 0 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 4 minutes and 12 minutes to simulate Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months exposure.

All three clothing types tested in this study were effective at providing a high level of personal protection against Ae. The comparison between the three clothing types revealed similar efficacy Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum hand dipped and factory-dipped clothing. It was also noted during this study that the home dipping process Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum an odour and change in texture of the clothing.

These factors should be considered if home dipping was to be used as a long-term intervention strategy as it could have an influence on consistency of results and on user compliance. The similarity in results between the factory dipped clothing and factory dipped school uniforms is promising for the use of treated school uniforms.

The duration of protection provided by the school uniforms was not directly assessed in this study due to availability of the treated school uniforms for testing. As the material and treatment technique were identical we believe the efficacy Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum duration of protection provided by the school uniforms would be very similar to that provided very young girls the factory Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum clothing however, the school uniform should be tested before being taken forward.

The microencapsulation-treated clothing showed a lower efficacy when compared to the factory and home dipped clothing. The results may be indicative of the different binding methods utilized. This technique may leave less permethrin available on the surface of the clothing and may explain the lower repellency, knockdown and mortality observed. However, this lower level Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum efficacy may be maintained for longer than the factory dipped clothing which, in the longer term, could offer a more effective clothing type.

Unfortunately, after initial testing the manufacturing of this clothing was stopped. Trials are underway to Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum microencapsulated clothing so it can Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum fully evaluated as further investigation into the duration of protection provided by microencapsulated clothing may better illustrate the effectiveness of this treatment technique.

The longevity of insecticide-treated clothing varied Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum depending on the wash technique used. The WHO washing appeared to be more rigorous than the machine washing method with the residual permethrin efficacy for the machine-washed clothing being retained for almost double the number of washes.

As the mechanical Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum for machine washing mycobacterium likely to be far harsher and uses a larger volume of water, the differences identified here could be due to the detergent used for each wash technique.

With such clear differences in efficacy between wash techniques, washing technique and detergent used should be considered when designing an intervention using impregnated fabrics. Therefore we recommend that washing of fabrics to determine the duration of protection provided by the clothing, should be performed according to Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum that are relevant and representative of the field.

HPLC results highlighted a Lincocin (Lincomycin Hcl)- Multum in permethrin content between the unwashed fabrics, washed by washing machine and hand washing, before washing (wash 0).

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