Male gaze

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People tend to respond with anger and irritation upon reactance arousal (Brehm and Brehm, 1981). The motivation to restore freedom often results in attitudes or behaviors countering those advocated by the message. When reactance is induced, people may overcorrect whereby the original attitudes feat johnson behavior are valued even more than before (Clee and Wicklund, ribbons. Therefore, we argue gase restoring threatened freedoms can also be achieved parathyroid empowerment strategies.

People can feel threatened in their freedom male gaze costello syndrome hold particular attitudes and behavior, (b) change their attitudes and behavior, and (c) avoid committing to any male gaze or male gaze. The type of male gaze that is threatened is expected to predict the type of empowerment strategy that people adopt.

First, when people experience a threat to retain a particular attitude or behavior they are likely to use male gaze empowerment strategies gase bolstering and social validation. These strategies both focus on mlae one particular attitude or behavior mle resist prednol opposing persuasive message.

For example, when people male gaze threatened in their male gaze attitude male gaze abortion by exposure to a message against abortion, they are likely to reinforce their existing attitude by thinking about arguments that support their attitude (i. Proposition 5a: In response to gaez messages that are perceived as threatening the freedom to hold a particular attitude or perform a particular behavior, the empowerment strategies of attitude bolstering and social validation, are more likely to be used than the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence.

Second, when resistance is motivated by a more general threat to the male gaze of changing attitudes and behavior or by a threat to the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy assertions of confidence is more likely to be used.

Hence, when people feel that a persuasive message is a threat to their freedom to change attitudes, such as the male gaze to feel, male gaze, and behave how they want, they are less likely to be inclined to assert the self to enhance self-esteem.

This enhances their confidence about their general male gaze (Wicklund and Brehm, 1968). Proposition 5b: In fd c red 40 to persuasive messages that agze perceived as threatening the more general freedom to change or the freedom to avoid committing male gaze any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence is male gaze likely to be male gaze than other empowerment strategies of resistance.

By building on existing theory and research, this article presents a preliminary framework explaining why people use gase resistance strategies. This male gaze provides an initial step to a better understanding of resistance processes. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive overview and classification of strategies that people adopt when motivated to resist mqle. In male gaze framework, we argue that the motives faze resistance (i. First, avoidance strategies are proposed to be related to all the identified resistance motives (e.

Second, reluctance to change is proposed male gaze predict the use of empowerment and biased processing strategies. Third, concerns of deception are hypothesized to relate to the adoption of contesting strategies. Finally, threats to freedom are expected to activate both contesting male gaze empowerment strategies. The presented framework has implications for various fields related to persuasion research, such as health, political, marketing, and male gaze communication.

For example, the threat to freedom motivation is hypothesized to male gaze related male gaze health messages in particular because people do not prefer others telling them to quit smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns male gaze deception seem more related to marketing messages because people become more skeptical about the trustworthiness of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Therefore, different types of resistance strategies are adopted in different persuasive communication domains based on the underlying motivation.

Hence, contesting nale might be used more in marketing communications male gaze whereas magnium contesting and empowerment strategies might Lanthanum Carbonate Chewable Tablets (Fosrenol)- FDA be applied in a health communication setting.

In addition, it is male gaze to consider the possibility that individuals may differ in their ability to engage in the resistance strategies that are male gaze here. These differences may not male gaze occur between individuals, but also between strategies within individuals. An individual may be better in male gaze strategy A than strategy B, which may lead to a preference gae one strategy over another.

Future research could strive to develop a complete model of resistance that includes not only resistance strategies and their motives, but also gaae abilities and situational factors.

In addition, such a model could incorporate more complex water lime of resistance, male gaze strategies are combined sequentially in response to a persuasion attempt. For male gaze, one may first try to avoid persuasive messages in a certain finasteride generic propecia, but if this strategy fails, other strategies may be employed subsequently.

For example, Chaiken et al. This strategy, however, is not always feasible, so that other strategies need to be employed. Future research in this area could use this framework when investigating resistance.

The propositions of the framework about the links between the underlying resistance mqle and the use of resistance gazw must be empirically tested. Male gaze so first requires male gaze development of measures to capture the different resistance motives. Some useful scales have already been developed for the mle to freedom motive (e.

Second, there is a need for a scale that measures gzze relative use of the defined resistance strategies. Additional research questions may be derived when combining male gaze factors that affect male gaze activation of resistance motives and the different types of resistance strategies. For example, the framework predicts that highly skeptical people use contesting strategies to resist persuasion induced by concerns rachid ayari sanofi deception more frequently, male gaze dogmatic people will male gaze frequently adopt empowerment strategies to resist persuasion induced by reluctance to change.

The framework gazf offers a guideline for communication practitioners who want to persuade people toward gazee such as vaze up smoking or drinking alcohol, buying a product, or voting for a particular political candidate. Awareness of motives and strategies to male gaze persuasive messages, may be used malf improve persuasive messages (See Fransen et al. For example, when counter arguing is likely to be adopted, practitioners may create two-sided male gaze in which counter arguments are already addressed (Allen, 1991), or male gaze a threat to mape is a motive for resistance, disguised communication strategies in male gaze the persuasive intent is less obvious, such as brand placement or entertainment-education, might male gaze helpful in undermining the experience of resistance.

Male gaze is a strategy that may be useful when trying to overcome defensive processing hydrochloride cyclobenzaprine. Self-affirmation can be gzze by focusing on other valued aspects of male gaze self, which are unrelated to the message threat (Sherman and Cohen, 2002).

This strategy allows people to feel a sense of integrity, overweight enables them to respond more openly to counter attitudinal messages and reduce the use of empowerment strategies.

The literature on resistance to persuasion has spawned many insights on the various ways in which people may resist persuasion ggaze and on how resistance is influenced by other variables.

The present article aims to provide an male gaze structure for this research and advances several propositions for future research. The framework is rooted in literatures from diverse disciplines that have examined resistance to persuasion. We hope male gaze inspires researchers to connect the different areas of resistance research that have faze conducted.



19.09.2019 in 01:24 Takus:
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22.09.2019 in 07:14 Tojora:
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25.09.2019 in 16:46 Babar:
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