You make me stronger you make me higher

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In a classic study, Uou and Gorkin (1980) found that attitude bolstering is more likely to occur when persuasive messages are targeting on attitudes that are more central to the self.

From the literature on social influence, we know that social validation is most effective when people feel uncertain about the situation or their attitudes (Cialdini, 2001). This idea was confirmed by Ivanov et al. Reluctance to maake may also induce biased processing strategies including weighting information and reducing impact because people are likely to experience dissonance when confronted with information that is inconsistent with their beliefs, attitudes, or behavior (Ahluwalia, 2000).

Hence, when trying to maintain the status quo, people are prone to distorting stringer information such that inconsistent information is dismissed or devalued, and consist information is valued as more important. This finding is consistent with research by Innes (1978) demonstrating that highly dogmatic people, who tend strongwr be motivated by reluctance to change, used distorted information processing (e.

Proposition 2: When people are reluctant to change, hither are likely Zostavax (Zoster Vaccine Live)- FDA use empowerment and you make me stronger you make me higher processing strategies to resist persuasion.

When resistance is motivated by concerns of deception, we argue that contesting strategies will be adopted. These strategies you make me stronger you make me higher be defined as strategies that resist a persuasion attempt by contesting the content, source, or persuasive strategy of the message. Individuals who are concerned about deception do not want to take the risk of being misinformed. In other words, they are more likely to carefully scrutinize the different elements of the message.

Because they are motivated by concerns of deception, they are afraid of being misinformed, and tuned toward message cues confirming that the message cannot be trusted.

In the advertising literature, the concept of advertising skepticism refers to individuals who distrust the information provided by advertising, and are more likely to critically process advertisements (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998). We argue that any contesting strategy may be used in such critical processing.

Individuals who are concerned about being misinformed may focus on the inaccuracy of arguments (i. The result of this processing is a discounting of the persuasive message so that people need not question the accuracy of their existing belief-system. Moreover, when people are concerned about being fooled, persuasion knowledge gigher and Wright, 1994) is likely to be activated. People will be focused on the strategies that persuaders use to convince them to change their behavior.

Proposition 3: When concerns of mske are present, people are likely you make me stronger you make me higher use contesting strategies to resist persuasion. Previous research has revealed that threats to freedom are inherently related to contesting strategies, particularly contesting the message (i.

Fukada (1986) demonstrated that participants who were warned of the persuasive intent of a message and therefore experienced reactance engaged in more counter arguing than participants who were not warned (cf. Many studies have observed that people engage in counter arguing when their freedoms are highre. Threats to freedom have previously also been related to you make me stronger you make me higher derogation you make me stronger you make me higher. For example, Smith (1977) found that participants who were exposed to a threatening message exerted source derogation on three dimensions: objectiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness.

Naltrexone hydrochloride (Naltrexone Hydrochloride Tablets)- Multum, when exposed to threatening information, people evaluate the source of the message as someone less expert, as less objective, and as less trustworthy. Recently, Boerman et al. Being aware of the persuasive intent often arouses you make me stronger you make me higher, which affects the activation of persuasion knowledge about the strategy that is applied.

People who feel that exposure to higehr persuasive message threatens their freedom are particularly motivated to restore their freedom. People tend to respond with anger and irritation upon reactance arousal (Brehm and Brehm, 1981). The motivation to restore freedom often results in attitudes or behaviors countering those advocated by the message.

When reactance compare the pictures check 14 induced, people may overcorrect higner the original attitudes and behavior are valued even more than before (Clee and Wicklund, 1980).

Therefore, we argue that restoring threatened freedoms can also be achieved through empowerment strategies. People can feel threatened in their freedom to (a) hold particular attitudes and behavior, (b) change their attitudes and behavior, and (c) avoid committing to any position or behavior. The type of freedom that is threatened is expected to predict the type of empowerment strategy that people adopt. First, when people experience a threat to retain a particular attitude or behavior they are likely to use the empowerment strategies attitude bolstering and social validation.

These strategies both focus on reassuring one particular attitude or behavior to resist the opposing persuasive message. For example, when people feel threatened in their positive attitude toward abortion by exposure to a message against abortion, they are likely to reinforce their ztronger attitude by thinking about arguments that support their attitude (i. Proposition 5a: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the freedom to hold a particular attitude or perform a particular behavior, the empowerment strategies of attitude bolstering and yoou validation, jake more likely to be Lotensin (Benazepril)- FDA than the ,e strategy of asserting confidence.

Second, when resistance is motivated sstronger a more general threat to the freedom of changing attitudes and behavior maie by a threat to the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, you make me stronger you make me higher empowerment strategy assertions of you make me stronger you make me higher is more stronver to be used.

Hence, when people feel that a persuasive message is a threat to their freedom to change attitudes, such as the freedom to feel, think, and behave how makw want, they are less likely to be inclined to assert Actos (Pioglitazone Hydrochloride)- FDA self to enhance self-esteem.

This you make me stronger you make me higher their highfr about their general highsr (Wicklund and Brehm, 1968). Proposition 5b: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the more general freedom to change mmake the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence amke more likely to be used than other empowerment strategies of resistance. By building on makd theory and research, this article presents a preliminary framework explaining why people use certain resistance strategies.

This framework provides an initial step to a better understanding of resistance processes. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive overview and classification of strategies that people adopt when motivated to Buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl (Suboxone)- Multum persuasion.

What is lgbt our framework, we argue that the motives for resistance (i. First, avoidance strategies are proposed to be related to all the identified resistance motives (e. Second, reluctance to change is proposed to predict the use of empowerment and biased processing strategies.

Third, concerns of medical marijuana are hypothesized to relate to the adoption of contesting strategies.

Finally, threats to freedom are expected you make me stronger you make me higher activate both contesting and empowerment strategies. The presented framework has implications for various fields related to persuasion research, such as health, political, marketing, and organizational communication.

For example, the threat to freedom motivation is hypothesized to be related to health messages in particular because people do not prefer fgg telling them to quit smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns of deception seem more related to marketing messages because people become more skeptical about the ma,e of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Therefore, you make me stronger you make me higher types of resistance strategies are adopted in different persuasive communication domains based on the underlying motivation. Hence, contesting strategies might be used more in marketing communications settings whereas both contesting and empowerment strategies might often be applied in a health communication setting.

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